Wednesday, September 7, 2011

Active and Passive Voice

Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have “active forms” and “passive form”.
Active Form
STRUCTURE [Subject (thing doing action)] + [verb] + [Object (thing receiving action)]
Subject (doing action)
Object (receiving action)
The teacher
the students.
the dishes


Passive Form

[Object (thing receiving action)]] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [Subject (thing doing action)]
Subject (doing action)
Object (receiving action)
The students
are taught
by the teacher
The dishes
are washed
by the tayyab.

Active / Passive Voice
A student must know the following Passive form tenses for good preparation of examination.
Present Indefinite/
Simple Present
Shan cleans the house.
subject + v1(s/es) + object
The house is cleaned by Shan.
object + is/am/are v3 + by + subject
Past Indefinite/
Simple Past
Asif repaired the car.
subject + v2 + object
The car was repaired by Asif.
object + was/were v3 + by + subject
Future Indefinite/ Simple Future
Saadia will finish the work.
subject + will/shall +v1 + object
The work will be finished by Saadia.
object + will/shall +be+v3 + by + subject
Present Continuous/
Present Progressive
Farha is writing the letter.
subject + is/am/are + v1+ing + object
The letter is being written by Farha.
object + is/am/are+being+v3 + by + subject
Past Continuous/
Past Progressive
The salesman was helping the customer.
subject + was/were + v1+ing + object
The customer was being helped by the salesman.
object + was/were+being+v3 + by + subject
Future Continuous
Iqra will be washing the dishes.
subject + will/shall be + v1+ing + object
The dishes will be being washed by Iqra.
object + will/shall be+being+v3 + by +subject
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
subject + has/have+v3 + object
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
object + has/have+been+v3 + by + subject
Past Perfect
Ahmad had repaired many cars.
subject + had + v3 + object
Many cars had been repaired by Ahmad.
object + had + been + v3 + by + subject
Future Perfect
They will have completed the project.
subject + will/shall have+v3 + object
The project will have been completed by them.
object + will/shall have+been+v3 +by+ subject
Imperative Sentences (Commands and Requests)
Cut your nails.
Open the door.
verb + v1 + object
Let your nails be cut.
Let the door be opened.
let + object + be + v3
A student should also know about the following Passive form tenses.
Present Perfect Continuous
Farhan has been doing the work.
subject + has/have+been+v1+ing+ object
The work has been being done by Farhan.
object + has/have+been+being+v3+subject
Past Perfect Continuous
Saad had been preparing the restaurant for two years.
subject + had been+v1+ing+ object
The restaurant had been being prepared by Saad for two years.
object + had been+being+v3+ subject
Future Perfect Continuous
Arsalan will have been polishing the shoes for over two hours.
subject + will/shall have been +v1+ing object
The shoes will have been being polished by Arsalan for over two hours.
object + will/shall have been+being+v3 +by+ subject

When we change a sentence from Active to Passive form; following changes take place which are common in all type of Passive Form Tenses:
1). Subject and Object will replace each other.
2). 3rd form of Verb will be used.
3). Addition of By before object (almost all time).
Present Indefinite
verb with 1st form (s/es)
Past Indefinite
verb with 2nd form
Future Indefinite
will/shall + be
Present/Past/Future Continue
is/am/are – was/were – will/shall be
is/am/are – was/were – will/shall be
+ being
Present/Past/Future Perfect
has/have – had – will/shall have
has/have – had – will/shall have
+ been
Present/Past/Future Perfect Continues
has/have been – had been – will/shall have been
has/have been – had been – will/shall have been
+ being

Simple Future
be going to
Saira is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
subject + is/am/are+ going to +v1+ object
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Saira tonight.
object + is/am/are+ going to be +v3+ by + subject
Future Continuous
be going to
Asma is going to be washing the dishes.
subject + is/am/are+ going to be +v1+ing object
The dishes are going to be being washed by Asma.
object + is/am/are+ going to be + being +v3+ by + subject
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
subject + is/am/are+ going to have +v3+ object
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
object + is/am/are+ going to have + been + v3+ subject
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
subject + is/am/are+ going to have been +v1+ing+ object
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
object + is/am/are + going to have been+being+v3 +by+ subject
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
subject + used to + v1 + object
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
object + used to be + v3 + by + subject
Would Always
My mother would always make the rice.
subject + would always + v1 + object
The rice would always be made by my mother.
object + would always be + v3 + by + subject
Future in the Past
I knew Faizan would finish the work.
v2(past) + subject +  would + v1 + object
I knew the work would be finished by Faizan.
v2(past) + object + would be + v3 + subject
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Misbah was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
v1(future) + subject +  was/were going to+ v1 + object
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Misbah tonight.
v1(Future) + object + was/were going to be + v3 + by +subject

From the desk of Mian Irfan Ali   


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